I know that the hardest part is to understand the terms we use about your problems. As there is abundant number of smears taken and there are millions of results occurring, it is your right to understand the things written. Thus I tried to create a glossary as best as I can. I believe it shall be developed and this is just the framing.
I hope it will be beneficial. 🙂
HPV= Human Papilloma Virus
Columnar epithelial cell = Columnar epithelial cell = Endometrium, tissue in the womb, is covered with one layer of “columnar” epithelia. This is a gland like epithelia.
Squamous epithelium cell=The tissue cover the vagina and the section of cervix close to the vagina (in fact covering our body). It can be single or multiple layers.
Basal Membrane= Basement membrane= It is the layer at the very bottom of the squamous epithelial or other epithelial cells that provide separation from other tissue layers. If the problematic cells at the cervix pass through this layer we talk about cancer.
Cervical Squamocolumnar junction= Cervical Transformation Zone= RMeeting point of the squamous and columnar epithelia at the cervix. It is rich with metaplasic cells which the HPV loves to infect or settle in.
Cervical Dysplasia= SIt is used for presence of precancerous cells at the epithelia covering the cervix. It is the term used to indicate an equivalent problem with the cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. And you shall read it a lot in this site. It is not cancer. And in fact very few of the dysplasia present in the cervix progress to cancer in ratio.
ASCUS= atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance Al in all, it means cells that are not known. They are defined as atypical inflammation by WHO and I believe it is a more accurate definition. These cells are used to express not only the inflammation that develops linked to the HPV infection but also the cells that can arise in the presence of any cervical infection. Meaning, presence of ASCUS is not a definite proof of HPV.
ASC-H= “atypical squamous cells-cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion” It is the smear that shows the presence of atypical cells where high grade (CIN 3 and CIN 3) lesions cannot be excluded. It must not be confused with ASCUS. ASC-H presence requires an immediate colposcopy, and even if no lesions are seen in colposcopy the closer monitoring of the patient.
CIN 1: When HPV starts the process causing the change in cells and these abnormal cells arise at the lowest layer of the tissue at cervix then we call this situation cervical intraepithelial neoplasia = CIN 1.
LSIL= “Low Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion” It is the term used instead of CIN 1.
CIN 2 – 3: If the displasic cells caused by HPV have covered 2/3 of the cervix tissue from bottom to top it is called CIN 2, if they have covered all of it then this is called CIN 3.
HSIL= “High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial”. In 2012, in the scope of “LAST” project CIN 2 and CIN 3 are decided to be called jointly as HSIL.
İn situ servikal kanser= In Situ Cervical Cancer= CIS= Today in situ cancer is used in the same meaning of CIN3. When you see the in situ cancer term you should know it means invasive cancer and you can say it is equivalent to CIN 3.
Invasive cervical cancer= Displasic cells passing through the basal membrane to the lower layers of the cervix, i.e. become invasive. This condition is called as cancer.
VIN: Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia= As at the cervix, it is the precancerous lesion of the region covering the big and small lips at the genital region of the women. Frequently it is developed as the result of HPV infection. It does not mean cancer.
VAIN: Vaginal Intraepithelial Neoplasia: It is the precancerous lesion of the vagina. Here also atypical, displasic cells have not yet passed the basal membrane. It is not cancer.